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如何使用gem在Ubuntu上安装Rails

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问题描述

错误消息:

Building native extensions.  This could take a while...
ERROR:  Error installing rails:
  ERROR: Failed to build gem native extension.

    /usr/bin/ruby2.1 -r ./siteconf20150328-1540-hff2f0.rb extconf.rb
checking if the C compiler accepts ... *** extconf.rb failed ***
Could not create Makefile due to some reason, probably lack of necessary
libraries and/or headers.  Check the mkmf.log file for more details.  You may
need configuration options.

Provided configuration options:
  --with-opt-dir
  --without-opt-dir
  --with-opt-include
  --without-opt-include=${opt-dir}/include
  --with-opt-lib
  --without-opt-lib=${opt-dir}/lib
  --with-make-prog
  --without-make-prog
  --srcdir=.
  --curdir
  --ruby=/usr/bin/ruby2.1
  --help
  --clean
/usr/lib/ruby/2.1.0/mkmf.rb:456:in `try_do': The compiler failed to generate an executable file. (RuntimeError)
You have to install development tools first.
  from /usr/lib/ruby/2.1.0/mkmf.rb:571:in `block in try_compile'
  from /usr/lib/ruby/2.1.0/mkmf.rb:522:in `with_werror'
  from /usr/lib/ruby/2.1.0/mkmf.rb:571:in `try_compile'
  from extconf.rb:80:in `nokogiri_try_compile'
  from extconf.rb:87:in `block in add_cflags'
  from /usr/lib/ruby/2.1.0/mkmf.rb:621:in `with_cflags'
  from extconf.rb:86:in `add_cflags'
  from extconf.rb:337:in `<main>'

extconf failed, exit code 1

Gem files will remain installed in /var/lib/gems/2.1.0/gems/nokogiri-1.6.6.2 for inspection.
Results logged to /var/lib/gems/2.1.0/extensions/x86_64-linux/2.1.0/nokogiri-1.6.6.2/gem_make.out

配置:

  1. Ubuntu 14.10(GNU /Linux 3.16.0-23-通用x86_64)

  2. gcc(Ubuntu 4.9.1-16ubuntu6)4.9.1

  3. ruby 2.1.2p95(2014-05-08)[x86_64-linux-gnu]

最佳解决方法

在使用RVM升级到Ubuntu 14.04上的Rails 4.2.4后,我需要这样做:

sudo apt-get install libgmp-dev

要么

sudo apt-get install libgmp3-dev

完整的堆栈跟踪:http://ruby-on-rails-eq8.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/solving-ubuntu-1404-ruby-c-dependancy.html

次佳解决方法

您似乎缺少一些Ruby要求。如果您使用的是RVM,请尝试:

rvm requirements

获取依赖项列表并手动安装它们。

否则,直接使用以下方法安装已知的基本要求

sudo apt-get install build-essential bison openssl libreadline6 libreadline6-dev curl git-core zlib1g zlib1g-dev libssl-dev libyaml-dev libxml2-dev autoconf libc6-dev ncurses-dev automake libtool

第三种解决方法

您收到此错误是因为缺少Ruby的开发依赖项。

我建议您安装并使用RVM来解决这个问题,请查看官方和更新的说明https://rvm.io/rvm/install

在我回答这个问题时,我遵循了以下步骤:

gpg --keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys
409B6B1796C275462A1703113804BB82D39DC0E3

\curl -sSL https://get.rvm.io | bash

如果你收到这个警告

  * WARNING: You have '~/.profile' file, you might want to load it,
    to do that add the following line to '/home/mao/.bash_profile':

  source ~/.profile

执行此命令:

echo source ~/.profile >> ~/.bash_profile

然后,通过执行以下命令重新加载/应用刚刚更新的bash_profile:

source ~/.bash_profile

最后运行它来安装要求:

rvm requirements

这适用于任何Linux发行版,如Ubuntu,Fedora,Debian,Redhat,Slackware。

参考资料

本文由Ubuntu问答整理, 博文地址: https://ubuntuqa.com/article/7176.html,未经允许,请勿转载。

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