cat /proc/sys/kernel/tainted 打印当前内核污点值(以 10 为基数)。我的理解是，这个值是一个位域，其中每一位都表示不存在或存在特定类型的污点。您可以使用提取位
python3 -c 'from pprint import pprint; pprint(list(zip(range(50), reversed(bin(int(open("/proc/sys/kernel/tainted").read()))[2:]))))'
我搜索了文档，但我所看到的仅标识了位 0 到 10 的含义。例如，http://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt 说：
tainted: Non-zero if the kernel has been tainted. Numeric values, which can be ORed together. The letters are seen in "Tainted" line of Oops reports. 1 (P): A module with a non-GPL license has been loaded, this includes modules with no license. Set by modutils >= 2.4.9 and module-init-tools. 2 (F): A module was force loaded by insmod -f. Set by modutils >= 2.4.9 and module-init-tools. 4 (S): Unsafe SMP processors: SMP with CPUs not designed for SMP. 8 (R): A module was forcibly unloaded from the system by rmmod -f. 16 (M): A hardware machine check error occurred on the system. 32 (B): A bad page was discovered on the system. 64 (U): The user has asked that the system be marked "tainted". This could be because they are running software that directly modifies the hardware, or for other reasons. 128 (D): The system has died. 256 (A): The ACPI DSDT has been overridden with one supplied by the user instead of using the one provided by the hardware. 512 (W): A kernel warning has occurred. 1024 (C): A module from drivers/staging was loaded. 2048 (I): The system is working around a severe firmware bug. 4096 (O): An out-of-tree module has been loaded. 8192 (E): An unsigned module has been loaded in a kernel supporting module signature. 16384 (L): A soft lockup has previously occurred on the system. 32768 (K): The kernel has been live patched. 65536 (X): Auxiliary taint, defined and used by for distros. 131072 (T): The kernel was built with the struct randomization plugin.
zless /usr/share/doc/linux-doc/sysctl/kernel.txt.gz 查看 Ubuntu 内核的文档，但仍然只列出最多 1024 个。
就我而言，我在 Precise 上运行默认的 PAE 内核 (3.2.0-36-generic-pae)。我还看到第 12 位已设置。
关于受污染位在 Ubuntu 内核上的含义的完整文档在哪里？
/** * print_tainted - return a string to represent the kernel taint state. * * 'P' - Proprietary module has been loaded. * 'F' - Module has been forcibly loaded. * 'S' - SMP with CPUs not designed for SMP. * 'R' - User forced a module unload. * 'M' - System experienced a machine check exception. * 'B' - System has hit bad_page. * 'U' - Userspace-defined naughtiness. * 'D' - Kernel has oopsed before * 'A' - ACPI table overridden. * 'W' - Taint on warning. * 'C' - modules from drivers/staging are loaded. * 'I' - Working around severe firmware bug. * 'O' - Out-of-tree module has been loaded. * 'E' - Unsigned module has been loaded. * 'L' - A soft lockup has previously occurred. * 'K' - Kernel has been live patched. * * The string is overwritten by the next call to print_tainted(). */